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In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure since it does not require an incision into one of the major body cavities and does not require any significant recovery after the procedure (unless sedation or anesthesia has been used). A sore throat is also common.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be abbreviated EGD, or OGD if one uses the British spelling 'oesophago-'. It is also called upper GI endoscopy (UGIE), gastroscopy or simply endoscopy (since it is the most commonly performed type of endoscopy, the ambiguous term 'endoscopy' refers to EGD by default).


  • Unexplained anemia (usually along with a colonoscopy)
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as evidenced by hematemesis or melena
  • Persistent dyspepsia in patients over the age of 40-45 years
  • Heartburn and chronic acid reflux - this can lead to a precancerous lesion called Barrett's esophagus
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing
  • Odynophagia - painful swallowing
  • Surveillance of Barrett's esophagus
  • Surveillance of gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer
  • Occasionally after gastric surgery
  • Abnormal barium swallow or barium meal


  • Treatment (banding/sclerotherapy) of esophageal varices
  • Injection of liquids through a needle (e.g. adrenalin in bleeding lesions)
  • Cutting off of larger pieces of tissue with a snare device (e.g. polyps, endoscopic mucosal resection)
  • Application of cautery to tissues
  • Retrieval of foreign bodies that have been ingested
  • Tamponade of bleeding esophageal varices with a balloon
  • Application of photodynamic therapy for treatment of esophageal malignancies
  • Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst
  • Tightening the lower esophageal sphincter.

Newer interventions

  • Endoscopic trans-gastric laparoscopy
  • Instillation of gastric balloons in bariatric surgery
Relevant Specialties
Paediatric Gastroenterology
Medical Conditions
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Medical Devices

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